Addiction is a complex condition that can have a devastating impact on the entire family. It is important to understand how addiction works, how it affects the whole family, and how to help those affected by it. The brain is often compared to an incredibly complex and intricate computer. Instead of electrical circuits in the silicon chips that control our electronic devices, the brain is made up of billions of cells, called neurons, that are organized into circuits and networks.
Each neuron acts as a switch that controls the flow of information. If a neuron receives enough signals from other neurons to which it is connected, it activates and sends its own signal to other neurons in the circuit. It may seem strange to group gambling problems in the same category as a drug or alcohol problem. But addiction experts are starting to move away from the idea that there are multiple addictions, each linked to a specific substance or activity. Rather, the Addiction Syndrome Model suggests that there is an addiction that is associated with multiple expressions.
An object of addiction can be almost anything, a drug-free or drug-free activity. For addiction to develop, the drug or activity must change a person's subjective experience in a desirable direction, making them feel good or feel better. Substance use disorder (SUD) is a complex condition in which there is an uncontrolled use of a substance despite harmful consequences. People with SUDs focus intensively on the use of certain substances, such as alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs, to the point where the person's ability to function in daily life is impaired. People continue to use the substance even when they know that it is causing or will cause problems. The most serious SUDs are sometimes referred to as addictions.
People with substance and behavioral use addictions may be aware of their problem, but they can't stop doing it even if they want to and try. Addiction can cause physical and psychological problems, as well as interpersonal problems, such as with family and friends or at work. Alcohol and drug use is one of the leading causes of preventable diseases and premature deaths across the country. To treat addiction, scientists have identified several medications and behavioral therapies, especially when used in combination, that can help people stop using specific substances and prevent relapses. Addiction is a multifaceted chronic disease, and multifaceted treatment is needed to restore the addict's life to normal.
Dopamine not only contributes to the experience of pleasure, it also plays a role in learning and memory, two key elements in the transition from liking something to becoming addicted to it. This holistic approach identifies the need to address not only brain disease of addiction, but also internal factors (such as genetics) and external risk factors that lead to and enable addiction. These 13 principles of effective drug addiction treatment were developed on the basis of three decades of scientific research. So why do some people become addicted when others don't? Ultimately, the answer lies in a person's unique brain chemistry and lived experiences. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition or DSM-IV) describes multiple addictions, each linked to a specific substance or activity, but a consensus is emerging that they can represent multiple expressions of a common underlying brain process. The likelihood that the use of a drug or participation in a rewarding activity will lead to addiction is directly related to the speed with which it promotes the release of dopamine, the intensity of that release, and the reliability of that release. This creates greater withdrawal, leading to physical dependence: the addict needs to use more of the substance just to feel normal, which creates a vicious cycle that can be difficult to break. The Addiction Center receives advertising payments from treatment centers that answer calls to the toll-free numbers listed on their websites and is not associated with any specific treatment provider.
Addiction involves longing for something intensely, losing control over its use, and continuing to engage with it despite adverse consequences. Ultimately, addiction has to do with the complex struggle between acting on impulse and resisting that impulse. When it comes to understanding how addiction works and how it affects families, there are several key points worth noting:
- Addiction changes brain chemistry by promoting dopamine release.
- Addiction involves longing for something intensely and losing control over its use.
- Addiction has physical dependence associated with it.
- Addiction has psychological effects on individuals as well as interpersonal effects on families.
- Seek professional help from an addiction specialist.
- Engage in family interventions.
- Encourage children from families affected by alcohol or drug abuse.